A historian and political scientist, an expert on the United States, politician, member of the Polish United Workers’ Party, Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland, and the Democratic Left Alliance. From 1991 to 2001, he was a Member of Parliament, and, from 2001 to 2005, a Senator and Speaker of the Senate. He has authored more than 760 research publications, including 90 books. He teaches at Polish and foreign universities, pre-dominantly in the USA, Canada and Europe. He has received many orders and awards, including: Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana 1st Class (Estonia 2002), Companion of Honour of the National Order of Merit (Malta 2002), Commander’s Cross of the Order of Merits to Lithuania (Lithuania, 2006), and the Commander’s Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta (Warsaw, August, 2015).