Computer Engineering - Bachelor's degree
Bachelor's Degree Programs
3.5 year (7 semesters)
Language of studies:
In a world where technology is ubiquitous, computer scientists, programmers, and network administrators are guaranteed to find employment plus above-average earnings. If you choose Computer Engineering (Bachelor’s level) at Vistula University, you are sure to receive a solid professional training. You will have the luxury of choice, regarding job offers, as a specialist in your chosen field of IT.
The Bachelor’s programme has been designed, not only for those particularly suited to computer engineering, but for anyone with a keen interest in computer graphics, and artificial intelligence, as well. If you want to learn programming, and specialise in a particular language, this programme is for you.
DOUBLE DEGREE PROGRAMME
Thanks to the double degree agreement, signed by Vistula University and the Centria University of Applied Sciences in Finland, first-degree students in Computer Engineering, can study for two semesters at a partner university, and as a result, receive a bachelor’s degree from both institutions.
It is possible to receive funding for one or two semesters at a partner university, as part of the Erasmus+ programme, provided that the first University’s criteria are met, and the application is submitted before the deadline.
Centria University of Applied Sciences is a dynamic, international university on the west coast of Finland. The training is conducted in English.
Finland is famous for its top-quality education and excellent living standards. Finnish degrees are not only recognised worldwide but are highly regarded.
Project co-ordinators for a B.Eng in Computer Engineering (Vistula), and B.Eng in Information Technology (Centria University)
For Centria University of Applied Sciences:
- Grzegorz Szewczyk, PhD, Academic co-ordinator, Principal Lecturer at the Degree Programme in Information Technology;
- Peter Finell, Administrative co-ordinator, International Relations Manager.
For Vistula University:
- Edip Senyurek, Academic co-ordinator, Co-ordinator of International Students at the Degree Programme in Computer Engineering;
- Jasurbek Babaev, Administrative co-ordinator, International Relations Department.
The curriculum of the Computer Engineering Bachelor’s programme has been designed, in accordance with employer expectations. Thanks to collaboration with renowned companies and experts in their respective fields, the computer engineering programme at Vistula University, ensures that you will
have the theoretical knowledge and practical skills necessary, to take up work in your field of choice.
The programme will prepare you for the following certification exams: Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist (MCTS), Microsoft Certified IT Professional (MCITP), Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) and Oracle Certified Professional (OCP). These certificates will confirm your skills, giving you a competitive edge.
Vistula University offers practical knowledge, shared by experts and reputable specialists. We believe that experience and the ability to utilise theoretical knowledge is the key to success. This is why the computer engineering programme includes no less than 750 hours of internships.
Studying at Vistula University will provide you with the knowledge necessary, to quickly become an expert in computer engineering.
List of obligatory classes
- Mathematic Analysis
- Introduction to Programming
- Introduction to Database
- Electronics for IT
- Intercultural communication
- Foreign Language 1
- Physical Education 1
- Library training
- OSH (Occupational safety and health)
- Object Oriented Programming
- Introduction to Internet Techniques
- Digital Technologies
- Communication and argumentation techniques I
- Foreign Language 2
- Physical Education 2
- Discrete Mathematics
- Computer Networks
- Architecture of Computers
- Java Programming
- Probabilistic Methods and Statistics
- Distributed Computer Systems
- Software Engineering
- Operating Systems
- Algorithm and Complexity
- Embedded Systems
- Engineering Diploma Project
- Professional Training
- Professional Training
- Engineering Diploma seminar
List of elective courses
- Security of computer systems
- Processing and transmission of multimedia data
- Mobile device software design
- Big Data Management
- Physics for IT
- Wireless ICT network
- Graphics and Human-Computer interaction
- Application of Python language for Data Science and Artificial Intelligence
- Introduction to Management in IT
- Business Negotiation
- IT project management
- Artificial Intelligence
- Team Project
- Introduction to law and Copyright
- Human rights
The Computer Engineering Bachelor’s programme is your first step towards an IT career in Poland or abroad. Your chosen sub-major will allow you to become an expert in the field. Find out what sub-majors are available – there are six of them!
COMPUTER GAME DEVELOPMENT ENGINEERING – NEW
Poland is one of the leaders in computer games development. Video game industry is a rapidly growing sector and its prospects are excellent. Consequently, there is a growing demand on the market for qualified specialists in this field. If you are creative, you have interesting, engaging ideas for new games and you want to develop in this area, then the Computer Game Engineering specialty is just for you. During your studies you will gain both theoretical knowledge and practical experience in designing, developing and integrating computer games. Courses are conducted in cooperation with No Gravity Games.
List of courses
- Design methodology for computer games
- Designing computer games
- Prototyping game mechanics and managing a team assignment project
- Designing and balancing complex games with dynamic gameplay
- Designing and programming a multiplayer for an assignment project
- Production and publication of computer games
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN ENGINEERING – NEW
Artificial Intelligence is one of the most important technologies of the future. It has been part of our lives for years, but advances in computing power, availability of huge amounts of data as well as development of new algorithms have led to great breakthroughs in this field. Machines are capable of displaying human skills such as reasoning, learning, planning, and creativity. Artificial Intelligence is predicted to change virtually all aspects of our lives and of the economy. If you want to link your career with this area of knowledge, then the Artificial Intelligence and Its Applications in Engineering specialty is just for you. You will learn the theoretical aspects of Artificial Intelligence with an emphasis on methodologies and techniques used in engineering and management. You will gain practical experience in using the acquired knowledge in practical projects.
List of courses
- Artificial Intelligence in management
- Expert systems and their applications
- Fuzzy logic and its applications
- Machine learning and its applications
- Neural networks and their applications
You will gain both theoretical knowledge and practical skills in designing, developing, and integrating databases in information systems. You will learn SQL programming and the methods of data exploration and analysis. This sub-major is taught in collaboration with ORACLE and Microsoft.
List of courses
- Database design
- Database server administration
- Web service design for databases
- Data warehouse design
- Advanced Database design
- Methods of exploration and analysis of business data
WEB TECHNOLOGIES ENGINEERING
List of courses
- Design of multi-tier Internet applications
- Advanced Internet Technologies
- Designing corporate portals
- Website design for multimedia
- Website design for mobile devices
- Techniques and Tools for testing web applications and mobile applications
CYBERSECURITY AND COMPUTER NETWORKS ENGINEERING
This sub-major will introduce you to the world of designing and implementing ICT service infrastructure (current and next generation). You will learn aspects of switching and routing technologies in local networks, ICT systems and network safety, network technologies, wide area networks, and VoIP communication. You will learn how to design local network solutions and manage network infrastructure. CISCO Systems is this sub-major’s business partner. Additionally, you will learn Protocols and tools for network security.
List of courses
- Switching and routing technologies for local area networks
- Network infrastructure management
- Wide area network technologies
- Security of systems and telecommunication networks
- Protocols and tools for network security
- Identification and analysis of threats of communication and electronic transactions
INFORMATION SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
This sub-major will teach you the latest IT methods and tools, aimed at supporting the design of complex IT systems with high performance and quality requirements. You will acquire knowledge of artificial intelligence and robotics. You will learn how to implement IT systems, and map and model business processes. This sub-major is taught in collaboration with ORACLE and Microsoft. Additionally, it will teach you how to combine curiosity, precision, and logical thinking with vast knowledge and the practical skills to become a great software tester. You will gain knowledge in the area of software verification and validation and learn how to detect irregularities in software and prevent its malfunctions. You will be able to properly identify malfunctions and their causes and ensure the highest quality of software (Quality Assurance), as well as to measure and control quality (Quality Control). Furthermore, the programme will teach you how to measure non-functional features of software (e.g. efficiency, reliability).
List of courses
- Design and development (maintaining) of application software
- Analysis and modeling of business processes
- Technologies for team work
- Techniques and tools for automation of software testing
- Software Engineering Tools and Methods
- Methods of estimating the effects of IT investments
Tomasz Bartczak, BEng, PhD
Graduate of Rzeszów University of Technology in the field of Electrical Engineering, specializing in “IT science and automation”; author of a PhD thesis “Methods for improvement of inter-nodal communication in layer-based architectures with multimedia traffic”, defended at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and IT Science of Częstochowa University of Technology; author of several dozen research papers. Instructor at the Cisco Academy – CCNA, CCNA Security and other programs.
Iwona Dolińska, BEng, PhD
A graduate of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology, PhD in technical sciences; she has experience as a programmer, designer and analyst of information systems; she has been the assistant professor at Vistula University from 2003. A specialist in wireless technologies (especially IEEE 802.11 standard), computer networks and modern internet technologies; the lecturer in many subjects related to the construction and security of computer wire and wireless networks, technologies for creating websites, computer graphics and human-computer interaction, an author or co-author of three academic textbook and over 30 scientific publications in the field of computer science and IT applications.
Soma Dutta, PhD
PhD in mathematical sciences at Calcutta University. Author of numerous publications.
prof. Paweł Gburzyński, PhD
Experienced professional with interests and notable achievements in theoretical aspects of computer science and engineering, especially telecommunications; designed and programmed operating systems, compilers, specification and simulation systems, mostly for application in telecommunications and embedded systems; an author of over 200 papers in the areas of telecommunications, simulation, operating systems, and security; he presented papers at many international conferences; worked in (and collaborated with) many prestigious academic departments in Canada, USA, and Germany. Consulted for Lockheed-Martin, NASA, and other companies in Canada and USA; in 2002 he cofounded Olsonet Communications, a Canadian company specializing in advanced, custom solutions in the area of distributed, wireless sensor systems; recipient of the Polish National Award in 1986 (for his participation in the Loglan project) and the academic McCalla award (in Canada) for contributions to research in telecommunications and computer science.
Mariusz Jakubowski, PhD
He is an author of about a dozen scientific articles on compression of video signals, which have been published at international conferences and in journals recognized in the ISI database; he has received the team award of the 1st degree of the Rector of Warsaw University of Technology for his scientific achievements in years 2012-2013; in years 2002-2008, he worked at the Industrial Telecommunications Institute (presently PIT-RADWAR), where he dealt with design and programming of microprocessor-based systems for the purpose of control and diagnostics of military radars; he is a research and technical employee of the Division for Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems of the Electron Technology Institute.
Prof. Maciej Janowicz, PhD
Master degree from the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, Mikołaj Kopernik University in Toruń, W (1987), PhD – Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Mikołaj Kopernik University in Toruń, (1995), professor PhD in physical sciences, specialty theoretical physics: Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science. Research-didactic work: Institute of Physics, Mikołaj Kopernik University in Toruń, (associate professor), Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Science (associate professor); Faculty of Applications of Information Technology and Mathematics, Warsaw University of Life Science (associate professor), in foreign institutions: Cambridge University (TEMPUS programme scholarship 2 x 3 months), Federal University in Rio de Janeiro (post-doctoral scholarship, 1 year), Royal Technical University in Stockholm (Swedish Institute scholarship, 3 months), Sussex University in Brighton (participation in a grant, 1 Year), Carl von Ossietzky University in Oldenburg (Humboldt scholarship, 1 year). Teaching the language of programming (lectures and classes): Python, C++, C#, Java. Lectures and classes in: operating systems, elements of cryptology, component programming, programming paradigms, multiagent systems, algorithms and computational complexity, event-steered programming, cryptology. Author of 48 scientific publications.
Prof. Leszek Jung, BEng, PhD
IT specialist and an expert in IT system design engineering; he is a graduate of the Faculty of Cybernetics of the Military University of Technology; he has performed many managerial functions at universities, these include: a dean of the Faculty of Computer Engineering at the Private School of Business and Administration, dean at the Faculty of Economic IT Science at the University of International Trade and Finance in Warsaw, a director at the Institute of IT Science and Econometrics at the University of Business, a dean of the Faculty of Economics at ALMAMER WSE; he is a reviewer of articles in scientific periodicals; a member of the Scientific Council for the Bulletin of the Institute of Automation and Robotics (ISSN 1427-35-78) – Faculty of Cybernetics of the Military University of Technology; he conducted the individual research project “Use of Web-based technologies in self-assessment of knowledge and skills of students”; an author and a co-author of several implemented scientific and research projects and many scientific works.
Elżbieta Kopciuszewska, BEng, PhD
Dean of the Faculty of Art, Technology and Communication. Author of more than 90 publications; she has received awards for scientific, educational and organisational development, for a cycle of works on enhancement of quality management; she has co-organised and organised many conferences and participated in such projects as the “Model of rules of ethics work for universities in Poland and Europe for education of future managers”; she has been a promoter for more than 160 theses in engineering, bachelor and masters studies; she received an award in the contest for the employee of the year 2017 of the Vistula Group of Universities.
Prof. Ryszard Kozera, PhD
Master of mathematical sciences – Faculty of Mathematics, Mechanics and Information Technology, Warsaw University, PhD in Computer Science – Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Faculty of Mathematics, Mechanics and Information Technology, Warsaw University, PhD in Computer Science – Flinders Uni. of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; PhD in mathematical sciences – Faculty of Mathematics, Mechanics and Information Technology, Warsaw University, (1992) recognition of PhD from Australia; PhD in computer science – Faculty of Automatics, Electronics and Information Technology, Technical University of Silesia. Scholarships and grants: Flinders University Postgraduate PhD Scholarship, Adelaide, Australia, (1987-1991), Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship, Technical Uni. Berlin, Berlin, Germany, (1996-1997), (1996) Junior Award for One of Two Best Australian Scientists working in Germany on research project, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Bonn, Germany, (1996), The Europe Research Fellowship, 1996-1997, Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship, Christian Albrecht Uni., Kiel, Germany, (2000), Small Australian Research Council Grant, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia, (2001-2001), Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship, Christian Albrecht Uni., Kiel, Germany, (2004), ‘Development of innovative ecological products for ecological cultivation of fruit plants’, EkoTech Product, UDAPOIG 01.03.03-00-109/08, Skierniewice, Poland, (2013). Research-didactic worker: Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Catholic University of Lublin and Social Academy of Science. Author of numerous publications.
Piotr Krajewski, BEng, PhD
Teaching / Research interests: management support systems ERP, CRM, FSM, BI etc. (Functionality, applications, selection, implementation, analysis and modelling of processes, integration with other systems – MES, SCADA, GIS etc.); economic aspects of the implementation and the use of IT systems (valuations, performance assessments, etc.).
Adam Krzemienowski, BEng, PhD
Engineer, PhD in information technology, optimization and assistance in risk conditions, Warsaw Technical University (2007); MBA, Warsaw Technical University (2003); MSc in information technology, IT software and systems engineering Warsaw Technical University (2001); visiting lecturer at Leeds University Business School, Leeds, Great Britain, visiting researcher at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria; lecturer at Warsaw Technical University. Participation in several research projects carried out by Warsaw Technical University and Warsaw University.
Bartłomiej Kubica, BEng, PhD
PhD in technical sciences in the field of information technology; doctoral dissertation entitled: ‘Optimization of steering access systems with uncertain parameters’ defended in 2006 in the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technologies, Warsaw Technical University. Scientific interests focusing on numerical calculations, in particular, interval methods and in a natural way also parallel programming, including multi-layered programming. They also embrace questions of multiple analysis, probabilistic modelling, queue systems, computer networks and real time systems. For several years now, organizer of mini-symposiums ‘High Performance Computing Interval Methods’ at PARA (‘State of the Art in Scientific and Parallel Computing’) series conferences as well as co-organizer of mini-symposia on related subjects at the conferences of the PPAM (‘Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics’) series. Apart from lectures at Warsaw Technical University, he conducts classes at Universita degli Studi di Genova, in Italy. Classes are held under the European Master of Robotics (EMARO) studies, and the subject taught is ‘Real-time Systems’. Long-time didactic worker of Warsaw Technical University and Warsaw University of Life Science. Author of numerous scientific publications.
Mirosław Lisiecki, BEng, MSc
Master of Science, Warsaw Technical University, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering, applied mathematics and technical physics, aviation, practical and didactic experience: WSB University – classes: Team database IT project, Network technologies, IT security, administration of SQL server, design of Internet database applications, advanced databases, design of data warehouses, data exploration and analysis – Vistula, information technologies, IT in management; principals of SQL –Warsaw School of Management; lecturer in advanced technologies and Almamer information technologies – School of Real Estate Management – administrator of the IT system, programmer, analyst, lecturer in IT assistance of works, mathematics, statistics, econometrics; IT consultant – database programmer, analyst of heat supply systems, NOT specialist, cooperation with the Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) in the preparation and issuance of Company Standards. Participation in the ’Good Management’ project, Warsaw WSGN 2012-2013 – (a database system project), participation in the research project ‘Police’, Warsaw, WSGN 2012-2013 (Normalization of database systems). Author of publication on instructions and implementations.
Antoni Masiukiewicz, PhD
A graduate of the Institute of Radioelectronics at the Faculty of Electronics of Warsaw University of Technology; he specialises in the issue of constancy of frequency, optimisation of noise and wireless technologies; he started his scientific career at the Unit of Piezoelectronics at the Tele- and Radiotechnical Institute, where he conducted research on noise optimisation of high-stability quartz generators; he was a founder, owner and President of the Management Board of Interstat Sp. z o.o., which launched and operated the Call Centre for ZWUT and Siemens Polska companies; at PTK Centertel – the IDEA and ORANGE network operator – he was responsible for implementation of the telecommunications law act; he participated in preparation of workstations of the Company in the process of research of appropriate markets in the area of mobile telephony and in preparation of bids for tenders for available frequencies; he has received a number of awards and distinctions in association with his scientific research and organisational activity; he is a co-author of 8 patents and the monograph Wireless applications and technologies and an author/co-author of several dozen works, 33 papers for domestic and international conferences and 43 articles; his works have been cited by 37 domestic and foreign sources.
Aleksandra Pędrak, PhD
Physical sciences; doctoral dissertation entitled: ‘Hidden symmetries in nuclear models’ defended in 2016. Participation in a research project under COPIN Consortium activity, Project No.: 04-113, IPHC/CRNS, Strasbourg, France; participation in a research project under the Bogolubov-Infeld programme, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, participation in the Harmonia 9 grant of the National Centre for Science. Professional experience focusing on the following issues: application of perturbation methods in QCD to the analysis of exclusive processes; analysis of the symmetry of nuclear models (in particular ±medium field models) in the use of functional analysis mathematical tools, group and representation theory; application of numerical tools and symbolic algebra of the Mathematica programme to the analysis of symmetry problems in nuclear models, cooperation in the development of the symbolic algebra algorithm in the Reduce programming language for generating unpredictable representations of point groups. Author of 5 scientific publications.
Edip Senyurek, MSc
Head of the programme of study IT science and Director of Student Activities Department. He earned his engineering degree in computer engineering in 1997 at the University of Ege in Izmir, Turkey; holder of two M.Sc. degrees: Engineering Management, obtained in 2001 at the Rand Afrikaans University in Johannesburg, South Africa, and Computer Engineering, obtained in 2013 at the Anadolu University in Eskisehir, Turkey; involved in conducting research on the recommender system.
Dariusz Strzęciwilk, BEng, PhD
PhD in technical sciences – Technical University of Silesia (2003), didactic work: Warsaw School of Life Sciences (Chair of Applications of Information Technology), Social Academy of Sciences, Vistula Academy of Finance and Business. Participant in study visits: visit under the programme ‘Support for the dynamic development of Polish education’ (Pol-EDDA), Haskoli Islands, Reykjavik, Island, June 2010, visit under the programme ‘IT as an opportunity for You’, March 2014, Fatih University, Istanbul, Turkey, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, Orhangazi University, Bursa, Turkey. Author of over 100 scientific publications, Cisco Academy instructor.
Marcin Wawryszczuk, BEng, PhD
PhD in technical sciences in the field of telecommunication; doctoral dissertation entitled: ‘Method of the development of a self-organizing sensory network of increased durability’ defended in 2012 in the Faculty of Electronics of Military technical Academy; participant in numerous courses documented with certificates. Practical experience gained in the course of work in institutions and firms: Credit Suisse Poland Ltd. Co. – Warsaw – Head of local GBSS IT/IT Project Manager (AVP), Deutsche Bank Poland S.A. – Warsaw/Madrid – IT Project Manager/Senior Business Analyst (AVP), Deutsche Bank Poland S.A. – Warszawa – IT Project Manager/Business Analyst, Sygma Banque S.A. – Warsaw (BNP Paribas) Expert Auditor (IT audit), Cetelem Bank S.A. – Warsaw (BNP Paribas) System Designer/Programmer.
Artur Wiliński, BEng, PhD
PhD, engineer in the field of electronics, specialty: artificial neuron networks; doctoral dissertation entitled: ‘Selected methods of diagnostic features exploration in the analysis of gene expression’ defended in 2008 in the Electrical Faculty, Warsaw Technical University; long-term active research-didactic worker at Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw Technical University and Military Technical University. Author of numerous scientific publications.
Mariusz Zawadzki, MA
THE BEST IN PRACTICE
The Computer Engineering Bachelor’s programme emphasises practical courses and the gaining of experience. A vast choice of sub-majors enables you to become an expert in your chosen field. Close collaboration with the University’s business partners, and courses taught by professionals, guarantees that the knowledge you gain has real-world applications.
After graduating, you will be a holder of the title of ‘Bachelor of Computer Engineering’.
See for yourself that Vistula is the best University in practice. Find out the benefits of studying Computer Engineering.
BENEFITS OF STUDYING COMPUTER ENGINEERING
Knowledge of programming languages
During your studies, you will learn programming languages. Depending on your sub-major, you will learn how to build applications, websites, software, or computer games.
Practice and experience
The Vistula University curriculum will allow you to pass Microsoft and Oracle certification exams. These will constitute proof of you skills, and give you a competitive edge. In addition, over the course of the studies, you will do 420 hours of internships, which will help you solidify your knowledge and provide you with valuable experience.
As a computer engineering graduate, you will possess specialised, scientific knowledge. This knowledge will be shared with you by our faculty of professionals and highly-rated lecturers. This is why studying at Vistula University will prepare you for a career in IT.
Graduating with a degree in Computer Engineering will help you find work in various interesting places:
- IT companies building, implementing, and maintaining IT tools and systems.
- Local and international corporations.
- Interactive agencies which build websites for their clients.
- Administrative entities implementing or utilising information systems.
- Leading edge research and development centres, as well as universities.
Tuition fee for full-time and part-time studies in Polish – students from outside the EU
Registration fee Tuition fee (per year) Tuition fee (per semester) Full-time 120 € 1 750 € 925 €
Tuition fee for full-time studies in English – EU and other countries citizens*
Registration fee Tuition fee (per year) Tuition fee (per semester) Full-time 120 € 2 500 € 1 350 €
*The group of citizens of other countries paying the same fees as EU citizens includes: Citizens of North America, Central America, Caribbean, South America, Northern Europe, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Asia (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia).
Tuition fee for full-time studies in English – citizens from the remaining countries*
Registration fee Tuition fee (per year) Tuition fee (per semester) Full-time and part-time studies 200 € 3 500 € 1 850 €
*This does not apply to students from the countries of North America, Central America, Caribbean, South America, Northern Europe, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Asia (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Mongolia).
**The semester fee payment is available only for students with a valid visa or a residence permit in Poland.
If you are a candidate, please contact our admission team:
International Admission Officer
WhatsApp or Viber: +48 798 066 870
(Russian and Polish)
International Admission Officer
WhatsApp: +48 510 858 087
If you are a recruitment agency’s representative, please contact our cooperation team:
Director of International Marketing and Recruitment
tel. +48 501 294 962
(cooperation with recruitment agencies and institutions)
International Admission Coordinator
tel.: +48 502 603 174
(cooperation with recruitment agencies)